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Doctor of Philosophy (Psychology). University of Minnesota Twin Cities, January 2021.

Master of Arts (Psychology). University of Minnesota Twin Cities, September 2019.

Bachelor of Arts (Biology). Thomas Edison State University, December 2012.


In press

Willoughby, E. A., Giannelis, A., Ludeke, S., Klemmensen, R., Nørgaard, A. S., Iacono, W. G., Lee, J. J., & McGue, M. (In press). Parent contributions to the development of political attitudes in adoptive and non-adoptive families. Psychological Science

Willoughby, E. A., & Lee, James J. (In press.) Parsing information flow in speeded cognitive tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition.

Willoughby, E. A. & Lee, J. J. (In press). Predicting cognitive ability differences from brain imaging and genetics data. In: The Cambridge handbook of intelligence and neuroscience.

Willoughby, E. A. (In press). Drawing and painting dinosaurs. Marlborough, UK: The Crowood Press. Projected release: October 2021.

Under review

Willoughby, E. A., McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., & Lee, James J. (Under review at Intelligence). The heritability of intelligence estimated in biological and adoptive families with 30-year-old offspring.

Nivard, M. G., Morris, T., Hansen, A., … Willoughby, E. A., … Lee, J. J., & Oskarsson, S. (Under review at Nature Genetics.) Within-sibship GWAS of 25 phenotypes improve estimates of direct genetic effects.


Anderson, E. L., Saunders, G. R. B., Willoughby, E. A., Iacono, W. G., McGue, M. (2020). Uncovering the genetic and environmental mediators of parent-offspring transmission of educational attainment: An adoption study. Journal of Personality, online first. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12600

McGue, M., Willoughby, E. A., Rustichini, A., Johnson, W., Iacono, W., & Lee, J. J. (2020). The contribution of cognitive and non-cognitive skills to intergenerational social mobility. Psychological Science, 31(7), 835–847. DOI: 10.1177/0956797620924677

Gulsuner, S., Stein, D. J., Susser, E. S., Sibeko, G., Pretorius, A., Walsh, T., Majara, L., Mndini, M. M., Mqulwana, S. G., Ntola, O. A., Casadei, S., Ngqengelele, L. L., Korchina, V., van der Merwe, C., Malan, M., Fader, K. M., Feng, M., Willoughby, E. A. . . . & McClellan, J. M. (2020). Genetics of schizophrenia in the South African Xhosa. Science, 367(6477), 569–573. DOI: 10.1126/science.aay8833

Willoughby, E. A., McGue, M., Iacono, W., Rustichini, A., & Lee, J. J. (2020). The role of parental genotype in predicting offspring years of education: Evidence for genetic nurture. Molecular Psychiatry, online first. DOI: 10.1038/s41380-019-0494-1

Kane, J. & Willoughby, E. (2020). God’s word or human reason? (Second edition) Portland, Oregon: Inkwater Press. ISBN: 978-1629016382. (Author & lead illustrator)


Willoughby, E. A., Love, A. C., McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., Quigley, J., & Lee, J. J. (2019). Free will, determinism, and intuitive judgments about the heritability of behavior. Behavior Genetics, 49(2), 136–153. DOI: 10.1007/s10519-018-9931-1


Willoughby, E. A. & Boutwell, B. B. (2018). Importance of intelligence and emotional intelligence for physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 320(2), 205. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2018.6278

Lee, J. J., Wedow, R., Okbay, A., Kong, E., Maghzian, O., Zacher, M., Nguyen-Viet, T. A., Bowers, P., Sidorenko, J., Linner, R. K., Fontana, M. A., Kundu, T., Lee, C., Li, H., Li, R., Royer, R., Timshel, P. N., Walters, R. K., Willoughby, E. A. . . . Cesarini, D. (2018). Gene discovery and polygenic prediction from a 1.1-million-person GWAS of educational attainment. Nature Genetics, 50(8), 1112–1121. DOI: 10.1038/s41588-018-0147-3


Kane, J., Willoughby, E, & Keesey, T. M. (2016). God’s word or human reason? (First edition) Portland, Oregon: Inkwater Press. ISBN: 978-1629016382. (Author & lead illustrator)